achieved statuses

the status a person chooses, such as a level of education or income


prejudiced action against a group of people

a laissez-faire leader

a hands-off leader who allows members of the group to make their own decisions

absolute poverty

the state where one is barely able, or unable, to afford basic necessities

acting crowds

crowds of people who are focused on a specific action or goal


an individual’s isolation from his society, his work, and his sense of self

Alternative movements

social movements that limit themselves to self-improvement changes in individuals


a type of unilateral descent that follows either the father’s or the mother’s side exclusively


the religion that believes in the divinity of nonhuman beings, like animals, plants, and objects of the natural world

anticipatory socialization

the way we prepare for future life roles


the view that social researchers should strive for subjectivity as they worked to represent social processes, cultural norms, and societal values


the status outside of an individual’s control, such as sex or race

assembling perspective

a theory that credits individuals in crowds as behaving as rational thinkers and views crowds as engaging in purposeful behavior and collective action


the process by which a minority individual or group takes on the characteristics of the dominant culture


those whose claim to refugee status have not been validated


the belief in no deities

authoritarian leaders

a leader who issues orders and assigns tasks


workers being replaced by technology


a process where people exchange one form of goods or services for another


tenets or convictions that people hold to be true


the act of entering into marriage while still married to another person

bilateral descent

the tracing of kinship through both parents’ ancestral lines


the owners of the means of production in a society


formal organizations characterized by a hierarchy of authority, a clear division of labor, explicit rules, and impersonality.


a way of organizing an economy so that the things that are used to make and transport products (such as land, oil, factories, ships, etc.) are owned by individual people and companies rather than by the government

career inheritance

a practice where children tend to enter the same or similar occupation as their parents

carrying capacity

the amount of people that can live in a given area considering the amount of available resources

caste system

a system in which people are born into a social standing that they will retain their entire lives

Casual crowds

people who share close proximity without really interacting


a group who shares a common social status based on factors like wealth, income, education, and occupation

class consciousness

the awareness of one’s rank in society

clear division of labor

the fact that each individual in a bureaucracy has a specialized task to perform

climate change

long-term shifts in temperature and climate due to human activity

Code of Ethics

a set of guidelines that the American Sociological Association has established to foster ethical research and professionally responsible scholarship in sociology


organizations that people do not voluntarily join, such as prison or a mental hospital

Coercive organizations

organizations that people do not voluntarily join, such as prison or a mental hospital


the act of a couple sharing a residence while they are not married

collective behavior

a noninstitutionalized activity in which several people voluntarily engage

collective conscience

the communal beliefs, morals, and attitudes of a society


the belief that one type of skin tone is superior or inferior to another within a racial group

concentric zone model

a model of human ecology that views cities as a series of circular rings or zones

Conflict theory

a theory that looks at society as a competition for limited resources


the extent to which an individual complies with group or societal norms

conspicuous consumption

the act of buying and using products to make a statement about social standing


an extension of symbolic interaction theory which proposes that reality is what humans cognitively construct it to be

content analysis

applying a systematic approach to record and value information gleaned from secondary data as it relates to the study at hand

Conventional crowds

people who come together for a regularly scheduled event

Convergence theory

a sociological theory to explain how and why societies move toward similarity over time as their economies develop

core nations

dominant capitalist countries

Cornucopian theory

a theory that asserts human ingenuity will rise to the challenge of providing adequate resources for a growing population


when a change in one variable coincides with a change in another variable, but does not necessarily indicate causation


groups that reject and oppose society’s widely accepted cultural patterns


the emphasis on certificates or degrees to show that a person has a certain skill, has attained a certain level of education, or has met certain job qualifications


a fairly large number of people who share close proximity


the process of obtaining needed services, ideas, or content by soliciting contributions from a large group of people


religious groups that are small, secretive, and highly controlling of members and have a charismatic leader

cultural capital

cultural knowledge that serves (metaphorically) as currency to help one navigate a culture

cultural imperialism

the deliberate imposition of one’s own cultural values on another culture

cultural relativism

the practice of assessing a culture by its own standards, and not in comparison to another culture

Cultural transmission

the way people come to learn the values, beliefs, and social norms of their culture

cultural universals

patterns or traits that are globally common to all societies


a group's shared practices, values, and beliefs

culture lag

the gap of time between the introduction of material culture and nonmaterial culture’s acceptance of it

culture shock

an experience of personal disorientation when confronted with an unfamiliar way of life


the application to and promotion of feminism online

davis-Moore thesis

a thesis that argues some social stratification is a social necessity

debt accumulation

the buildup of external debt, wherein countries borrow money from other nations to fund their expansion or growth goals

degradation ceremony

the process by which new members of a total institution lose aspects of their old identities and are given new ones


the loss of industrial production, usually to peripheral and semi-peripheral nations where the costs are lower

Democratic leaders

a leader who encourages group participation and consensus-building before moving into action

Demographic transition theory

a theory that describes four stages of population growth, following patterns that connect birth and death rates with stages of industrial development


the study of population


a large, mainstream religion that is not sponsored by the state

dependency theory

a theory which states that global inequity is due to the exploitation of peripheral and semi-peripheral nations by core nations

dependent variable

a variable changed by other variables


a sustained recession across several economic sectors

design patent

patents that are granted when someone has invented a new and original design for a manufactured product

diagnostic framing

a the social problem that is stated in a clear, easily understood manner


the spread of material and nonmaterial culture from one culture to another

digital divide

the uneven access to technology around race, class, and geographic lines

doing gender

the performance of tasks based upon the gender assigned to us by society and, in turn, ourselves


Defense of Marriage Act, a 1996 U.S. law explicitly limiting the definition of “marriage” to a union between one man and one woman and allowing each individual state to recognize or deny same-sex marriages performed in other states

dominant group

a group of people who have more power in a society than any of the subordinate groups

double standard

the concept that prohibits premarital sexual intercourse for women but allows it for men

dramaturgical analysis

a technique sociologists use in which they view society through the metaphor of theatrical performance


a two-member group

dynamic equilibrium

a stable state in which all parts of a healthy society work together properly


social patterns that have undesirable consequences for the operation of society


the ability to sort through, interpret, and process digital knowledge


the disposal of broken, obsolete, and worn-out electronics


a religion that is considered the state religion


the social institution through which a society’s resources (goods and services) are managed


a social institution through which a society’s children are taught basic academic knowledge, learning skills, and cultural norms

emergent norm theory

a perspective that emphasizes the importance of social norms in crowd behavior

empirical evidence

evidence that comes from direct experience, scientifically gathered data, or experimentation

endogamous union

unions of people within the same social category

Environmental racism

the burdening of economically and socially disadvantaged communities with a disproportionate share of environmental hazards

environmental sociology

the sociological subfield that addresses the relationship between humans and the environment

Established sects

sects that last but do not become denominations


shared culture, which may include heritage, language, religion, and more


the practice of evaluating another culture according to the standards of one’s own culture


observing a complete social setting and all that it entails

evolutionary model of technological change

a breakthrough in one form of technology that leads to a number of variations, from which a prototype emerges, followed by a period of slight adjustments to the technology, interrupted by a breakthrough

exogamous marriages

unions of spouses from different social categories

explicit rules

the types of rules in a bureaucracy; rules that are outlined, recorded, and standardized

Expressive crowds

crowds who share opportunities to express emotions

expressive leaders

a leader who is concerned with process and with ensuring everyone’s emotional well-being


the act of a dominant group forcing a subordinate group to leave a certain area or even the country

extended family

a household that includes at least one parent and child as well as other relatives like grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins


communities that arise farther out than the suburbs and are typically populated by residents of high socioeconomic status

false consciousness

a person’s beliefs and ideology that are in conflict with her best interests


socially recognized groups of individuals who may be joined by blood, marriage, or adoption and who form an emotional connection and an economic unit of society

family life course

a sociological model of family that sees the progression of events as fluid rather than as occurring in strict stages

family life cycle

a set of predictable steps and patterns families experience over time

family of orientation

the family into which one is born

family of procreation

a family that is formed through marriage

fertility rate

a measure noting the actual number of children born

field research

gathering data from a natural environment without doing a lab experiment or a survey

first world

a term from the Cold War era that is used to describe industrialized capitalist democracies

flash mobs

a large group of people who gather together in a spontaneous activity that lasts a limited amount of time


direct, appropriate behavior in the day-to-day practices and expressions of a culture

formal education

the learning of academic facts and concepts

formal norms

established, written rules

formal organizations

large, impersonal organizations

fourth world

a term that describes stigmatized minority groups who have no voice or representation on the world stage


hydraulic fracturing, a method used to recover gas and oil from shale by drilling down into the earth and directing a high-pressure mixture of water, sand, and proprietary chemicals into the rock

frame alignment process

using bridging, amplification, extension, and transformation as an ongoing and intentional means of recruiting participants to a movement


the part a recurrent activity plays in the social life as a whole and the contribution it makes to structural continuity


a theoretical approach that sees society as a structure with interrelated parts designed to meet the biological and social needs of individuals that make up that society


the sorting process by which thousands of possible messages are shaped into a mass media-appropriate form and reduced to a manageable amount


a term that refers to social or cultural distinctions of behaviors that are considered male or female

gender continuum

understanding gender as continuum of multiple identities rather than as a binary of either men or women. 
gender dysphoria

gender dysphoria

a condition listed in the DSM-5 in which people whose gender at birth is contrary to the one they identify with. This condition replaces "gender identity disorder"

gender identity

a person’s deeply held internal perception of his or her gender

gender role

society’s concept of how men and women should behave

generalized other

the common behavioral expectations of general society


the deliberate annihilation of a targeted (usually subordinate) group


the entry of upper- and middle-class residents to city areas or communities that have been historically less affluent

global feminization

a pattern that occurs when women bear a disproportionate percentage of the burden of poverty

global inequality

the concentration of resources in core nations and in the hands of a wealthy minority

global stratification

a comparison of the wealth, economic stability, status, and power of countries as a whole

grade inflation

the idea that the achievement level associated with an A today is notably lower than the achievement level associated with A-level work a few decades ago

Grand theories

an attempt to explain large-scale relationships and answer fundamental questions such as why societies form and why they change

gross national income

the income of a nation calculated based on goods and services produced, plus income earned by citizens and corporations headquartered in that country


any collection of at least two people who interact with some frequency and who share some sense of aligned identity


the idea that society is constructed by us and those before us, and it is followed like a habit

hawthorne effect

when study subjects behave in a certain manner due to their awareness of being observed by a researcher

Head Start program

a federal program that provides academically focused preschool to students of low socioeconomic status


an ideology and a set of institutional practices that privilege heterosexuals and heterosexuality over other sexual orientations

hidden curriculum

the informal teaching done in schools that socializes children to societal norms

Hierarchy of authority

a clear chain of command found in a bureaucracy

high culture

the cultural patterns of a society’s elite


an extreme or irrational aversion to homosexuals

Human ecology

a functional perspective that looks at the relationship between people and their built and natural environment


a testable proposition

ideal culture

the standards a society would like to embrace and live up to


the removal of personal feelings from a professional situation


a group a person belongs to and feels is an integral part of his identity


the money a person earns from work or investments

independent variable

variables that cause changes in dependent variables

informal education

education that involves learning about cultural values, norms, and expected behaviors through participation in a society

informal social norms

casual behaviors that are generally and widely conformed to

information societies

societies based on the production of nonmaterial goods and services

Institutional racism

racism embedded in social institutions


the act of implanting a convention or norm into society

instrumental leader

a leader who is goal oriented with a primary focus on accomplishing tasks

intergenerational mobility

a difference in social class between different generations of a family

internally displaced person

someone who fled his or her home while remaining inside the country’s borders

interpretive framework

a sociological research approach that seeks in-depth understanding of a topic or subject through observation or interaction; this approach is not based on hypothesis testing

intersection theory

theory that suggests we cannot separate the effects of race, class, gender, sexual orientation, and other attributes


a one-on-one conversation between the researcher and the subject

intimate partner violence (IPV)

violence that occurs between individuals who maintain a romantic or sexual relationship

Iron Rule of Oligarchy

the theory that an organization is ruled by a few elites rather than through collaboration


a person’s traceable ancestry (by blood, marriage, and/or adoption)

knowledge gap

the gap in information that builds as groups grow up without access to technolog

laissez-faire leader

a hands-off leader who allows members of the group to make their own decisions


a symbolic system of communication

latent functions

the unrecognized or unintended consequences of a social process

leadership function

the main focus or goal of a leader

leadership styles

the style a leader uses to achieve goals or elicit action from group members

Liberation theology

the use of a church to promote social change via the political arena

literature review

a scholarly research step that entails identifying and studying all existing studies on a topic to create a basis for new research

looking-glass self

our reflection of how we think we appear to others


a wide-scale view of the role of social structures within a society

Malthusian theory

a theory asserting that population is controlled through positive checks (war, famine, disease) and preventive checks (measures to reduce fertility)

Manifest functions

sought consequences of a social process

Market socialism

a subtype of socialism that adopts certain traits of capitalism, like allowing limited private ownership or consulting market demand


a legally recognized contract between two or more people in a sexual relationship who have an expectation of permanence about their relationship


a relatively large group with a common interest, even if they may not be in close proximity

material culture

the objects or belongings of a group of people

Matrilineal descent

a type of unilateral descent that follows the mother’s side only

matrilocal residence

a system in which it is customary for a husband to live with the his wife’s family

mechanical solidarity

a type of social order maintained by the collective consciousness of a culture


all print, digital, and electronic means of communication

Media consolidation

a process by which fewer and fewer owners control the majority of media outlets

media globalization

the worldwide integration of media through the cross-cultural exchange of ideas


a Christian church that has a very large congregation averaging more than 2,000 people who attend regular weekly services


a large urban corridor that encompasses several cities and their surrounding suburbs and exurbs


an economic policy based on national policies of accumulating silver and gold by controlling markets with colonies and other countries through taxes and customs charges


an ideal system in which personal effort—or merit—determines social standing


a technique in which the results of virtually all previous studies on a specific subject are evaluated together


the area that includes a city and its suburbs and exurbs

micro-level theories

the study of specific relationships between individuals or small groups

minority group

any group of people who are singled out from the others for differential and unequal treatment


the process that increases the amount of specialization and differentiation of structure in societies


an object that a society agrees to assign a value to so it can be exchanged as payment


the act of being married to only one person at a time


a religion based on belief in a single deity

moral development

the way people learn what is “good” and “bad” in society


the moral views and principles of a group

mortality rate

a measure of the number of people in a population who die

motivational framing

a call to action


a form of socialism under which individuals and cooperative groups exchange products with one another on the basis of mutually satisfactory contracts


that role that our individual genetics play in self-development 


those who see technology as a symbol of the coldness of modern life

net neutrality

the principle that all Internet data should be treated equally by internet service providers

new media

all interactive forms of information exchange

New social movement theory

a theory that attempts to explain the proliferation of postindustrial and postmodern movements that are difficult to understand using traditional social movement theories


“Not In My Back Yard,” the tendency of people to protest poor environmental practices when those practices will affect them directly

No Child Left Behind Act

an act that requires states to test students in prescribed grades, with the results of those tests determining eligibility to receive federal funding

Nongovernmental organizations

nongovernmental organizations working globally for numerous humanitarian and environmental causes

nonmaterial culture

the ideas, attitudes, and beliefs of a society

nonreactive research

using secondary data, does not include direct contact with subjects and will not alter or influence people’s behaviors

Normative organizations

organizations that people join to pursue shared interests or because they provide some intangible rewards

nuclear family

two parents (traditionally a married husband and wife) and children living in the same household


the role that our social environment plays in self-development


a situation in which a few firms dominate a marketplace

operational definition

specific explanations of abstract concepts that a researcher plans to study

organic solidarity

a type of social order based around an acceptance of economic and social differences


a group that an individual is not a member of, and may even compete with


a practice where jobs are contracted to an outside source, often in another country

panoptic surveillance

a form of constant monitoring in which the observation posts are decentralized and the observed is never communicated with directly

participant observation

when a researcher immerses herself in a group or social setting in order to make observations from an “insider” perspective

patrilocal residence

a system in which it is customary for the a wife to live with (or near) the her husband’s family

peer group

a group made up of people who are similar in age and social status and who share interests

peripheral nations

nations on the fringes of the global economy, dominated by core nations, with very little industrialization

planned obsolescence

the act of a technology company planning for a product to be obsolete or unable from the time it’s created

Plant patents

patents that recognize the discovery of new plant types that can be asexually reproduced


the ideal of the United States as a “salad bowl:” a mixture of different cultures where each culture retains its own identity and yet adds to the “flavor” of the whole


a practice where the differences between low-end and high-end jobs become greater and the number of people in the middle levels decreases


the introduction of contaminants into an environment at levels that are damaging


a form of marriage in which one woman is married to more than one man at one time


the state of being committed or married to more than one person at a time


a form of marriage in which one man is married to more than one woman at one time


a religion based on belief in multiple deities

popular culture

mainstream, widespread patterns among a society’s population


a defined group serving as the subject of a study

population composition

a snapshot of the demographic profile of a population based on fertility, mortality, and migration rates

population pyramid

a graphic representation that depicts population distribution according to age and sex


the scientific study of social patterns


biased thought based on flawed assumptions about a group of people

primary data

data that are collected directly from firsthand experience

primary groups

small, informal groups of people who are closest to us


a law stating that all property passes to the firstborn son

Prognostic framing

social movements that state a clear solution and a means of implementation


the laborers in a society


an unorganized, relatively diffuse group of people who share ideas

qualitative data

comprise information that is subjective and often based on what is seen in a natural setting

qualitative sociology

in-depth interviews, focus groups, and/or analysis of content sources as the source of its data

quantitative data

represent research collected in numerical form that can be counted

quantitative sociology

statistical methods such as surveys with large numbers of participants

queer Theory

an interdisciplinary approach to sexuality studies that identifies Western society’s rigid splitting of gender into male and female roles and questions its appropriateness

racial profiling

the use by law enforcement of race alone to determine whether to stop and detain someone


a set of attitudes, beliefs, and practices that are used to justify the belief that one racial category is somehow superior or inferior to others

random sample

a study’s participants being randomly selected to serve as a representation of a larger population


a belief that modern society should be built around logic and efficiency rather than morality or tradition

real culture

the way society really is based on what actually occurs and exists


two or more consecutive quarters of economic decline


the practice of routinely refusing mortgages for households and business located in predominately minority communities

reference group

groups to which an individual compares herself

Reform movements

movements that seek to change something specific about the social structure


an individual who has been forced to leave their country in order to escape war, persecution, or natural disaster


an error of treating an abstract concept as though it has a real, material existence

relative poverty

the state of poverty where one is unable to live the lifestyle of the average person in the country


a measure of a study’s consistency that considers how likely results are to be replicated if a study is reproduced


a system of beliefs, values, and practices concerning what a person holds to be sacred or spiritually significant

Religious beliefs

specific ideas that members of a particular faith hold to be true

Religious experience

the conviction or sensation that one is connected to “the divine”

Religious rituals

behaviors or practices that are either required for or expected of the members of a particular group

Religious/Redemptive movements

movements that work to promote inner change or spiritual growth in individuals

Resistance movements

those who seek to prevent or undo change to the social structure


the process by which old behaviors are removed and new behaviors are learned in their place

resource mobilization theory

a theory that explains social movements’ success in terms of their ability to acquire resources and mobilize individuals

Revolutionary movements

movements that seek to completely change every aspect of society

role conflict

a situation when one or more of an individual’s roles clash

role performance

the expression of a role

role strain

stress that occurs when too much is required of a single role


an array of roles attached to a particular status


patterns of behavior that are representative of a person’s social status


small, manageable number of subjects that represent the population


a way to authorize or formally disapprove of certain behaviors

sapir-Whorf hypothesis

the way that people understand the world based on their form of language

scientific method

an established scholarly research method that involves asking a question, researching existing sources, forming a hypothesis, designing and conducting a study, and drawing conclusions

second world

a term from the Cold War era that describes nations with moderate economies and standards of living

secondary data analysis

using data collected by others but applying new interpretations

secondary groups

larger and more impersonal groups that are task-focused and time limited


a small, new offshoot of a denomination


the physical separation of two groups, particularly in residence, but also in workplace and social functions


a person’s distinct sense of identity as developed through social interaction

self-fulfilling prophecy

an idea that becomes true when acted upon


in-between nations, not powerful enough to dictate policy but acting as a major source of raw materials and an expanding middle-class marketplace

Semi-peripheral nations

in-between nations, not powerful enough to dictate policy but acting as a major source of raw materials and an expanding middle-class marketplace


a biological term that denotes the presence of physical or physiological differences between males and females

sex ratio

the ratio of men to women in a given population


the prejudiced belief that one sex should be valued over another

sexual orientation

a person’s physical, mental, emotional, and sexual attraction to a particular sex (male or female)


a person’s capacity for sexual feelings

shaken-baby syndrome

a group of medical symptoms such as brain swelling and retinal hemorrhage resulting from forcefully shaking or impacting an infant’s head

social change

the change in a society created through social movements as well as through external factors like environmental shifts or technological innovations

social construction of race

the school of thought that race is not biologically identifiable

social control

a way to encourage conformity to cultural norms

social facts

the laws, morals, values, religious beliefs, customs, fashions, rituals, and all of the cultural rules that govern social life

social institutions

patterns of beliefs and behaviors focused on meeting social needs

social integration

a belief that modern society should be built around logic and efficiency rather than morality or tradition

social mobility

the ability to change positions within a social stratification system

social movement industry

the collection of the social movement organizations that are striving toward similar goals

social movement organizations

a single social movement group

social movement sector

the multiple social movement industries in a society, even if they have widely varying constituents and goals

social movements

a purposeful organized group hoping to work toward a common social goal

social norms

the visible and invisible rules of conduct through which societies are structured

social placement

the use of education to improve one’s social standing

social solidarity

the social ties that bind a group of people together such as kinship, shared location, and religion

social stratification

a socioeconomic system that divides society’s members into categories ranking from high to low, based on things like wealth, power, and prestige


an economic system in which there is government ownership (often referred to as “state run”) of goods and their production, with an impetus to share work and wealth equally among the members of a society


the process wherein people come to understand societal norms and expectations, to accept society’s beliefs, and to be aware of societal values


a group of people who live in a defined geographical area who interact with one another and who share a common culture

sociological imagination

the ability to understand how your own past relates to that of other people, as well as to history in general and societal structures in particular


the systematic study of society and social interaction with attention to the interconnection between individuals, groups, and institutions


classifying students based on academic merit or potential

standard of living

the level of wealth available to acquire material goods and comforts to maintain a particular socioeconomic lifestyle


the responsibilities and benefits that a person experiences according to his or her rank and role in society

status consistency

the consistency, or lack thereof, of an individual’s rank across social categories like income, education, and occupation


oversimplified ideas about groups of people

structural mobility

a societal change that enables a whole group of people to move up or down the class ladder

structural unemployment

a societal level of disjuncture between people seeking jobs and the jobs that are available


groups that share a specific identification, apart from a society’s majority, even as the members exist within a larger society

subordinate groups

a group of people who have less power than the dominant group

subsistence farming

farming where farmers grow only enough to feed themselves and their families


the communities surrounding cities, typically close enough for a daily commute


collect data from subjects who respond to a series of questions about behaviors and opinions, often in the form of a questionnaire

sustainable development

development that occurs without depleting or damaging the natural environment

symbolic interactionism

a theoretical perspective through which scholars examine the relationship of individuals within their society by studying their communication (language and symbols)


gestures or objects that have meanings associated with them that are recognized by people who share a culture

technological diffusion

the spread of technology across borders

technological globalization

the cross-cultural development and exchange of technology


those who see technology as symbolizing the potential for a brighter future

The McDonaldization of Society

the increasing presence of the fast food business model in common social institutions

theoretical frames

three distinct perspectives in sociology that situate the social issue in a particular framework


a proposed explanation about social interactions or society

third world

a term from the Cold War era that refers to poor, unindustrialized countries

thomas theorem

how a subjective reality can drive events to develop in accordance with that reality, despite being originally unsupported by objective reality

total institution

an organization in which participants live a controlled lifestyle and in which total resocialization occurs


the belief in a divine connection between humans and other natural beings


a formalized sorting system that places students on “tracks” (advanced, low achievers) that perpetuate inequalities


an adjective that describes individuals who identify with the behaviors and characteristics that are other than their natal biological sex


a three-member group


a state in which a person accepts a lower paying, lower status job than his or her education and experience qualifies him or her to perform

underground economy

an unregulated economy of labor and goods that operates outside of governance, regulatory systems, or human protections

Unilateral descent

the tracing of kinship through one parent only.

universal access

the equal ability of all people to participate in an education system

urban sociology

the subfield of sociology that focuses on the study of urbanization


the study of the social, political, and economic relationships of cities

utilitarian organizations

organizations that are joined to fill a specific material need

Utility patents

patents that are granted for the invention or discovery of any new and useful process, product, or machine


the degree to which a sociological measure accurately reflects the topic of study

value neutrality

a practice of remaining impartial, without bias or judgment during the course of a study and in publishing results

value-added theory

a functionalist perspective theory that posits that several preconditions must be in place for collective behavior to occur


a culture’s standard for discerning what is good and just in society


a German word that means to understand in a deep way


the value of money and assets a person has from, for example, inheritance

white flight

the migration of economically secure white people from racially mixed urban areas toward the suburbs

white privilege

the benefits people receive simply by being part of the dominant group


a belief that another culture is superior to one’s own

zero population growth

a theoretical goal in which the number of people entering a population through birth or immigration is equal to the number of people leaving it via death or emigration


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Rothschild's Introduction to Sociology Copyright © by Teal Rothschild is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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