This book was modified from Biology at It was initially modified by instructors at Front Range Community College (FRCC, Colorado) in June 2019, and further modified by Katherine R. Mattaini in July 2020. Major changes made included reordering the chapters, replacing some images, and some rewording.

The information page for Biology 2e, including the link to the first edition, can be found here:

The original book was licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit or send a letter to Creative Commons, PO Box 1866, Mountain View, CA 94042, USA.

Senior Contributing Authors of the original book:

Yael Avissar, Rhode Island College

Jung Choi, Georgia Institute of Technology

Jean DeSaix, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Vladimir Jurukovski, Suffolk County Community College

Robert Wise, University of Wisconsin, Oshkosh

Connie Rye, East Mississippi Community College

Contributing Authors of the Revised Book for Front Range Community College:

Ann Riedl, Front Range Community College

Christopher Wrobel, Front Range Community College

Maria Carolina Pilonieta, Front Range Community College

Richard Fulghum, Front Range Community College



Icon for the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

Introduction to Molecular and Cell Biology Copyright © 2020 by Katherine R. Mattaini is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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